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Idioms

  • in lieu[luː] of : in stead of

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Articles

Hong Kong is at war, and why should the world be worried. (Nov 13 2019)

  • ordinance : a law, usually of a city or town, that forbids or restricts an activity
  • public assemblies
  • beleaguered police force
    • /bɪˈliːɡəd $ -ərd/, experiencing a lot of problems or criticism
  • Anti-Extradition Law Amendment Bill
    • be obliged to take supportive roles instead
  • grew to a new height
  • chronologies given by the police
    • chronology : /krəˈnɒlədʒi $ -ˈnɑː-/, an account of events in the order in which they happened, 서술
    • chron‧i‧cle : /ˈkrɒnɪkəl $ ˈkrɑː-/, a written record of a series of events, especially historical events, written in the order in which they happened, 연대기
  • brutality of the police force
    • brutal - adj. very cruel and violent
    • brutality - n. cruel and violent behaviour, or an event involving cruel and violent treatment
  • live round
    • A live round is a bullet which can be shot. A real bullet, as opposed to the blank one, which is not real.
  • at point-blank range adv. a gun fired point-blank is fired very close to the person or thing it is aimed at
    • The victim was shot point-blank in the chest.
    • The bullet was fired at point-blank range.
  • in critical condition
  • seize the gun in the policeman's hand
    • v. /siːz/, to take hold of something suddenly and violently (= grab); to take control of a place suddenly and quickly, using military force
  • adamant - adj. /ˈædəmənt/, determined not to change your opinion or a decision that you have made, 단호한
  • raid - n. a short attack on a place by soldiers, planes, or ships, intended to cause damage but not take control
  • riot - rioter
  • cease fire
    • v. /siːs/, to stop doing something or stop happening
  • turn out to be empty
  • search warrant granted by the court
    • n. a legal document that gives the police official permission to search a building
  • raised eyebrows of the public
    • if something raises eyebrows, it surprises people
  • off-the-mark
    • A long way from an intended target.; incorrect or inaccurate.
  • Vice-Chancellor
  • cohort
    • n, /ˈkəʊhɔːt $ ˈkoʊhɔːrt/, someone’s cohorts are their friends who support them and stay loyal to them, 무리/동료/지지자
  • opined
    • v. /əʊˈpaɪn $ oʊ-/, to say what your opinion is about something, 의견을 말하다/생각하다
  • sense of humanity
  • launch assault
    • n. /əˈsɔːlt $ əˈsɒːlt/, the crime of physically attacking someone, 맹공격/강습
    • sexual assault on women
  • muppet - n, an insulting word for someone who is stupid or who has done or said something stupid

Patterns

  • interested, excited, involved, related
    • be interested in ~
    • be involved in ~
    • be related to ~
    • be excited to ~
  • I'm into = be fond of, be crazy about, be mad about
  • I'm totally ~
  • I'm not big on ~ = I'm not good at ~, I'm poor with ~
  • I'm not in the mood for/to ~
  • I heard that
    • I heard that skipping a meal is bad for health.
  • Emotion/Feeling
Expression Meaning Remarks
It's ridiculus. 어이없다
I'm innocent. 억울하다, 결백하다.
I feel unsettled . 찝찝하다.
I'm frustrated. 답답하다.
I'm desperate. 필사적이다.
He's naive. 순진하다. not having much experience of how complicated life is, so that you trust people too much and believe that good things will always happen
I feel suffocated. 갑갑하다. to feel as if you are not free or do not have enough space
  • used to vs usually
    • used to : past habit or past
      • He used to visit his country house at the weekends. - past habit
      • He used to work in a bank. - past
    • usually : current habit
      • She usually cooks fish on Fridays.

Idioms

Idiom Meaning Example Remarks
take away Remove (food or something) 치우다
throw away to get rid of something that you do not want or need 버리다
put away to put something in the place where it is usually kept 제자리에 되돌려놓다
go off leave : to leave a place, especially in order to do something
explode : to explode or fire
stop linking Many women go off coffee during pregnancy.
show off to try to make people admire your abilities, achievements, or possessions She raised her wrist, showing off a sparkling diamond bracelet.
show up arrive, appear
get stuck in/into to start doing something eagerly and with a lot of energy Take your jacket off and get stuck in!
skip over ignore, overlook
break down to fail or stop working in a successful way
break out a fire, fight, or war starts to happen 발생하다
to escape from a prison 탈옥하다
break up if a marriage, group of people, or relationship breaks up, the people in it separate and do not live or work together anymore
look forward to to be excited and pleased about something that is going to happen
Idiom Meaning Example Remarks
up to scratch good enough for a particular standard We spent thousands of pounds getting the house up to scratch.
thinly veiled 노골적으로
first come, first served by order of arrival Tickets will be allocated on a first come, first served basis. 선착순으로
  • spring to mind : bring
  • work at/for
  • work in
    • + place
    • + city
    • + country
    • + department
    • + industry

Vocabulary

Word Meaning Remarks
bribe n. /braɪb/ money or a gift that you illegally give someone to persuade them to do something for you
extend v. to continue for a longer period of time, or to make something last longer temporal
expand v. to become larger in size, number, or amount, or to make something become larger spatial
intense adj. having a very strong effect or felt very strongly very strong
intensive adj. involving a lot of activity, effort, or careful attention in a short period of time 집중적인
lend v. to let someone borrow money or something that belongs to you for a short time borrow, lend/lent/lent
rend v. to tear or break something violently into pieces tear violently
groom v. to clean and brush an animal, especially a horse
broom n. a large brush with a long handle, used for sweeping floors 빗자루
diploma n. /dəˈpləʊmə $ -ˈploʊ-/ a document showing that a student has successfully completed their high school or university education 졸업증명서
transcript n. an official college document that shows a list of a student’s classes and the results they received 성적증명서
diplomat n. /ˈdɪpləmæt/ someone who officially represents their government in a foreign country ambassador
sanctum n. /ˈsæŋktəm/ a holy place inside a temple 성소
sanctuary n. /ˈsæŋktʃuəri/ an area for birds or animals where they are protected and cannot be hunted; a peaceful place that is safe and provides protection, especially for people who are in danger refuge
sanction v. /ˈsæŋkʃən/ a form of punishment that can be used if someone disobeys a rule or law punishment
gross adj. total gross sum/profit/income/salary
clearly wrong and unacceptable (very bad); very unpleasant to look at or think about (nasty) disgusting
yucky adj. extremely unpleasant <> yummy
nasty adj. nasty behaviour or remarks are extremely unkind and unpleasant nasty to
adverse adj. not good or favorable
adversary n. ˈædvəsəri a country or person you are fighting or competing against opponent
tainted adj. affected or influenced by something illegal, dishonest, or morally wrong
tamper v. to touch or make changes to something that you should not, usually without enough knowledge of how it works or when you are trying to damage it
hinder v. to make it difficult for something to develop or succeed
deter v. to stop someone from doing something, by making them realize it will be difficult or have bad results
scenic adj. surrounded by views of beautiful countryside scenic viewpoint, scenic route
scenery n. the natural features of a particular part of a country that you can see, such as mountains, forests, deserts ...
picky adj. only likes particular things and not others, and so is not easy to please 까다로운
spoiled adj. a spoiled person, especially a child, is rude and behaves badly because they have always been given what they want and allowed to do what they want 버릇없는, 못된
dense adj. difficult dense questions
stuffy adj. people, occasions, or places that are stuffy are too formal and old-fashioned – used to show disapproval 완고한, 융통성없는
sanitary adj. relating to the ways that dirt, infection, and waste are removed 위생적인
jog v. to run slowly and steadily
to knock or push something lightly by mistake touch < jog < hit
cough v. n. /kɒf $ kɒːf/ to suddenly push air out of your throat with a short sound, often repeatedly 기침하다
spurious adv. false and not what it appears to be false, fake, forged, phoney/phony, spurious
forged adv. a forged official document (eg. passport) or bank note (eg. $10 note) has been illegally made to look like a real one forge (v.)
glacier n. a large mass of ice which moves slowly down a mountain valley, 빙하 Ethereum Muir Glacier Upgrade, Muir Glacier
compromise v. to do something which is against your principles and which therefore seems dishonest or shameful 타협하다, 절충하다
benign adj. bɪˈnaɪn kind and gentle
aviation n. /eɪviˈeɪʃən/ the science or practice of flying in aircraft; the industry that makes aircraft 항공술; 항공산업
walkout n. an occasion when people stop working or leave a meeting as a protest
ephemeral adj. ɪˈfemərəl existing or popular for only a short time transitory, permanent
Word Meaning Remarks
the disabled people who are disabled
special needs children
placement test/exam a test designed to evaluate a person's preexisting knowledge of a subject and thus determine the level most suitable for the person to begin coursework on that subject.
all-you-can-eat restaurant a type of restaurant in which a fixed price is charged for entry, after which diners may consume as much food as they wish. AYCE, buffet
food stall a stall at which food can be bought.
lucky draw game in which prizes are covered up and mixed together in a container
bank transfer when money is sent, usually electronically, from an account in one bank to an account in another
venue n. ˈvenjuː a place where an organized meeting, concert etc takes place venue map
  • travel, trip, tour, journey
    • trip
      • Short-term
      • take/have/go on/make a trip
    • journey
      • Long-term
      • Life is a journey
    • tour
      • Usually with well planned schedule or guide
  • homework, task, assignment
    • homework : uncountable
      • much homework (O), homeworks (X)
    • task, assignment : countable

Kitchen Verbs

Verb Meaning Remarks
grill if you grill something, or if it grills, you cook it by putting it on a flat metal frame with bars across it, above or below strong direct heat
bake to cook something using dry heat, in an oven bread or cakes
fry to cook something in hot fat or oil, or to be cooked in hot fat or oil 튀기다, 볶다
boil to cook something in very hot water
simmer /ˈsɪmə $ -ər/ to boil gently, or to cook something slowly by boiling it gently 고다
grate to rub cheese, vegetables etc against a rough or sharp surface in order to break them into small pieces 강판에 갈다
chop to cut something into smaller pieces 잘게 자르다

Cafe Expressions

  • What can I get for you? = What would you like?
  • Do you want whipped cream on top?
  • Do you want mug or plastic cup?
  • For here, to go?
  • How much is it if I add a shot?
  • Can I have a large, triple-shot, sugar-free, non-fat latte, please?
  • Do you need room (for milk/cream) ?
  • pick up window
  • whole milk / 1-2% milk / fat-free milk / skim milk
  • coffee sleeve = coffee holder
  • lid/sleeve

Grammar

Infinitive vs Gerund

구분 동사
동사원형(infinitive)을 목적으로 갖는 동사 let, make, help, see, hear
To 부정사를 목적어으로 갖는 동사 want, wish, hope, expect, decide,

promise, agree, allow, ask, persuade, advice, order, force, remind, warn, reject

동명사를 목적어로 갖는 동사 enjoy, mind, deny, avoid, quit, finish, keep, stop

postpone, prevent, consider

To 부정사/동명사를 모두 목적으로 가질 수 있는 동사 like, love, prefer, hate, start, begin, continue
  • 예문
    • Let me go there with you.
    • Don't make her cry.
    • How long do you want to stay here.
    • I wish to make a complaint.
    • Do you mind me smoking.
    • I enjoyed playing the game.
    • You should avoid staying too long.
  • 주의할 예제
    • I saw her standing there.
  • remember
    • remember to do : 미래성
    • remember ~ing  : 과거성

Preposition

Place and Time

Preposition Place Time
in in Korea

in Seoul

in 2020

in March

on on Monday

on Sunday morning

at at hospital at the morning

at 1st March 2020

  • Without preposition
    • today, yesterday, tomorrow : adverb
    • this year/month
    • next year/month
    • last year/month
    • this/yesterday/tomorrow morning
    • downtown : adverb

Readings

For Children

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